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Volcano rupture within the crust of the Earth, that permits hot lava, volcanic ashfall, as well as gases to flee from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a warmer, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, volcanoes are generally found in Earth where tectonic plates are diverging or to say converging, and mostly found underwater. Therefore, volcanoes are generally found in Earth where tectonic plates are diverging or to say converging, and mostly found underwater. As an example, a mid-oceanic ridge, a bit like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of the fireside has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes form if there's stretching and thinning of the crust's plates, e.g., within the East African Rift and thus the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and therefore the Rio Grande Rift in North America. This sort of volcanism falls under the umbrella of the "plate hypothesis" volcanism. Volcanism distant from plate boundaries has explained as mantle plumes. These are also called "hotspots", as an example, Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core-mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep within the planet. Volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past each other.

Sabancaya volcano, Peru in 2017

Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic home in El Salvador. 170 volcanoes, 23 which are active, which include two calderas, where one is a supervolcano. El Salvador has earned the epithets endearment La Tierra de Soberbios Volcanes, (The Land of Magnificent Volcanoes).

Cleveland Volcano within the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International space platform, May 2006
Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only within the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash is usually a threat to aircraft, especially those with jet engines where ash particles are often melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of vitriol obscure the sun and funky the Earth's lower atmosphere (or troposphere); however, they also absorb heat radiated from the earth, thereby warming the upper atmosphere (or stratosphere). Historically, volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines.

Volcanic features

The most common perception of a volcano is of a conical mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit; however, this describes only one of the numerous sorts of the volcano. The features of volcanoes are far more complicated and their structure and behavior depend on a selection of things. Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes instead of a summit crater while others have landscape features like massive plateaus. Vents that issue volcanic material (including lava and ash) and gases (mainly steam and magmatic gases) can develop anywhere on the landform and can produce to smaller cones like Puʻu ʻŌʻō on a flank of Hawaii's Kīlauea. other forms of volcano include cryovolcanoes (or ice volcanoes), particularly on some moons of Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune; and dirt volcanoes, which are formations often not related to the known magmatic activity. Active mud volcanoes tend to involve temperatures much but those of igneous volcanoes except when the mud volcano is essentially a vent of an igneous volcano.


  1. Listen for emergency information and alerts.
  2. Follow evacuation or shelter orders. If advised to evacuate, then do so early.
  3. Avoid areas downstream of the eruption.
  4. Protect yourself from falling ash.
  5. Don't drive in heavy ashfall.


Prepare NOW

  1. Know your area’s risk from the eruption.
  2. Always in volcano eruption areas communicate with local emergency management for evacuation and shelter plans, for potential means of protection.
  3. Study community warning systems by signing up for a free service called the Volcano Notification Service (VNS) that sends notifications about volcanic activity.
  4. Get necessary supplies beforehand just in case you've to evacuate immediately, or if services are stopped. confine mind to each person’s specific needs, including medication. don't forget the requirements of pets.
  5. Consult your doctor if you've existing respiratory difficulties.
  6. Try to communicate and evacuation plan with everyone in your family.
  7. Have a shelter in the plan place.
  8. Keep important documents during a secure place. Create password-protected digital copies.
  9. Determine what your homeowner’s policy will cover when a volcano erupts.

Survive DURING

  1. Hear alerts from the Volcano Notification Service. They provide updates on information about eruptions.
  2. Follow evacuation orders from local authorities. Evacuate early.
  3. Avoid areas downwind, and river valleys downstream, of the volcano. Rubble and ash are becoming to be carried by wind and gravity.
  4. Take temporary shelter from volcanic ash where you're if you've enough supplies. Cover ventilation openings and seal doors and windows.
  5. If outside, protect yourself from falling ash which may irritate skin and injure breathing passages, eyes, and open wounds. Use a well-fitting, certified mask like an N95. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) features a listing of certified masks and thus the maker’s instructions on the because of using the masks.
  6. Avoid driving in heavy ashfall.


  1. Listen to authorities to hunt out when it's safe to return after an eruption.
  2. Send text messages or use social media to realize bent family and friends. Phone systems are often busy after a disaster. Only make emergency calls.
  3. Avoid driving in heavy ash. Driving will fire up volcanic ash which may clog engines and stall vehicles.
  4. If you've any breathing problems, avoid contact with ash. Stay indoors until authorities say it's safe to travel outside.
  5. Aren't getting on your roof to urge obviate ash unless you've guidance or training. If you've to urge obviate ash, then be very careful as ash makes surfaces slippery. lookout to not contribute additional weight to an overloaded roof.

10 Most Hazardous Countries For Volcanoes

1. Indonesia
2. Philippines
3. Japan
4. Mexico
5. Ethiopia
6. Guatemala
7. Ecuador
8. Italy
9. El Salvador
10. Kenya

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